Douglas R. Labar, M.D., Ph.D.

Douglas Labar

For over 30 years, I have been studying brain electrical activity and one of the main results that occur when that electrical activity is disturbed, namely, epileptic seizures. I now continuing these studies, to better understand how the brain functions and malfunctions, and to apply what I and others have learned to develop new treatments to help people who have seizures and other neurological disorders.

Douglas R. Labar, MD, PhD is the Director of the Division of Clinical Neurophysiology. He received his medical degree and doctorate in neurophysiology at The Medical College of Pennsylvania. He completed an internship in medicine at The Medical College of Pennsylvania, and a residency in neurology followed by a fellowship in clinical neurophysiology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. He is certified by The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and The American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology. His major subspecialty interest is in intensive neurologic monitoring and epilepsy.


Insurance Plans Accepted

The following represents most of the managed care plans accepted by this physician. If your insurance carrier does not appear here please contact the physician’s office as they may have individual contracts not included on this site.

* indicates this physician is no longer accepting new patients with this insurance plan.

  • AETNA [Medicare]
  • Aetna - Weill Cornell [POS]
  • Affinity Essential
  • Affinity Health Plan
  • Blue Priority Network
  • Emblem Select Care
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [EPO]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [Pathway X Enhanced]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [PPO]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [Pathway X]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [HMO]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [Mediblue (Senior)]
  • Fidelis Care
  • Health First
  • Health Insurance Plan of NY (HIP) [Medicare]
  • Health Insurance Plan of NY (HIP) [Medicaid]
  • Health Insurance Plan of NY (HIP)
  • Health Plus - Amerigroup [CHP]
  • Health Plus - Amerigroup
  • Health Republic
  • Medicaid
  • Medicare
  • Oscar
  • Oxford Health Plans [Medicare Advantage]
  • Oxford Health Plans [Liberty]
  • Oxford Health Plans [Freedom]
  • Rockefeller University - CoreSource
  • UHC Compass
  • United Empire
  • United Health Care [Medicare]
  • United Health Care [Community Plan]
  • United Health Care
  • VNSNY CHOICE Medicare [HMO]


1. Nigam M, Labar D, "The effects of hyperphenylalaninemia on size and density of synapses in rat neocortex", Brain Res 1979; 179:195-198

2. Pearson H, Labar D, Payne B, Cornwell P, Aggarwal N, "Transneuronal retrograde degeneration in the cat retina following neonatal ablation of the visual cortex", Brain Res 1981; 212:470-475

3. Labar D., Berman N, Murphy E, "Short- and long-term effects of neonatal and adult visual cortex lesions on the retinal projection to the pulvinar in cats", J Comp Neuro 1981; 197:639-659

4. Berman N, Payne B, Labar D., Murphy E, "Functional organization of neurons in cat striate cortex:& Variations in ocular dominance and receptive-field type with cortical laminae and location in visual field", J Neurophys 1982; 48:1362-1377

5. Labar D, Mohr J, Nichols F, Tatemichi T, "Unilateral hyperhydrosis after cerebral infarction", Neurology 1988; 38:1679-1681

6. Solomon G, Labar D, Galbraith R, Schaefer J, Kappas A, "Neurophysiological abnormalities in adolescents with type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome", EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1990; 76:473-475

7. Wong M, Suite N, Labar D, "Seizures in H.I.V. infection", Archives of Neurology 1990; 47:640-644

8. Labar D, Petty G, Emerson R, Pedley T, Mohr J, "Somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with small subcortical strokes", Journal of the Neurological Sciences 1991; 101:221-226

9. Labar D, Fisch B, Pedley T, Fink M, Solomon R, "Quantitative EEG monitoring for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage", EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1991; 78:325-337

10. Wong M, Suite N, Labar D, "Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome", Annals of Internal Medicine 1992; 116:171-172

11. Wells C, Solomon G, Labar D, "Aphasia as the sole manifestation of simple partial status epilepticus", Epilepsia 1992; 33:84-87

12. Labar, D, Coll, R, Solomon G, "Intractable status epilepticus", Journal of Epilepsy 1993; 6:170-173

13. Solomon, G, Carson, D, Pavlakis S, Fraser R, Labar D, "Intracranial EEG monitoring in Landau-Kleffner syndrome associated with a left temporal astrocytoma", Epilepsia 1993; 34:557-560

14. Labar D, Ali A, Root J, "High-dose intravenous lorazepam for refractory status epilepticus", Neurology 1994; 44:1400-1403

15. Zak R, Solomon G, Petito F, Labar D, "Baclofen-induced generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus", Annals Neurology 1994; 6:113-114

16. Nadkarni M, Postalache V, Gold A, Labar D, "Central mid-temporal spikes triggered by blinking", EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1994; 90:36-39

17. Lucas S, Solomon G, Labar D, Chutorian A, "Episodic brainstem compression masquerading as electrodecremental seizures", Journal of Child Neurology 1994; 9:167-169

18. Schiff N, Victor J, Canel A, Labar D, "Characteristic nonlinearities of the 3/S ictal EEG identified by nonlinear autoregressive analysis", Biol Cyber 1995; 72:519-526

19. Grogan R, Wagner D, Sullivan T, Labar D, "Generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus after ECT", Convulsive Therapy 1995; 11:51-56

20. Petty G, Labar D, Fisch B, Pedley T, Mohr J, Khandji A, "EEG in lacunar infarction", J Neurol Sci& 1995; 134:47-50

21. Rubin E, Dhawan V, Moeller J, Takikawa S, Labar D, Schaul N, Barr W, Eidelberg D, "Cerebral metabolic topography in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy", Neurology 1995; 45:2212-2223

22. Hosain S, Burton L, Fraser R, Labar D, "Focal suppression burst on electrocorticography after temporal lobectomy", Neurology 1995; 45:2276-2278

23. Borchert L, Labar D, "Permanent hemiparesis due to partial status epilepticus", Neurology 1995; 45:187-188

24. Nagarajan L, Eidelberg D, Fraser R, Schaul N, Dhawan V, Labar D, "Contralateral temporal hypometabolism on PET in temporal lobe epilepsy", Acta Neurol Scand 1996; 93:81-84

25. Hosain S, Nagarajan L, Carson D, Solomon G, Labar D, "Felbamate for infantile spasms", J Child Neurol 1997; 12:466-468

26. Sachdeo R, Leroy R, Krauss G, Drake M, Green P, Leppk I, Shu V, Ringham G, Sommerville K, Labar D, et al.& “Tiagabine therapy for complex partial seizures”. Arch Neurol 1997; 54:595-601.

27. Beydoun A, Fischer J, Labar D, Harden C, et al.& "Gabapentin monotherapy: II. A 26-week, double-blind, dose-controlled, multicenter study of conversion from polytherapy in outpatients with refractory complex partial or secondarily generalized seizures", Neurology 1997; 49:746-752

28. Dean A, Solomon G, Harden C, Papakostas G, Labar D, "Left-hemisphere dominance of epileptiform discharges", Epilepsia 1997; 38:503-505

29. Hosain S, Fraser R, Van Posnak A, Labar D, "Effects of nitrous oxide on electrocorticography", EEG Clin Neurophys 1997; 102:340-342

30.& Lu D, Margouleff M, Rubin E, Labar D, et al., "Temporal lobe epilepsy:& Correlation of 18FDG PET and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy", Magnetic Spectroscopy in Medicine 1997; 37:18-23

31. Labar D, Barrera J, Solomon G, "Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the elderly", Journal of Epilepsy 1998; 11:74-78

32. Solomon G, Labar D.& “Hypothesis that tiagabine-induced NCSE is associated with GABAergic hyperfunction, with GABA(B) receptors playing a critical role”, Epilepsia 1998; 39:1383

33. Handforth A, DeGiorgio C, Schacter S, Uthman B, Naritoku D, Tecoma E, Labar D, et al., "Vagus nerve stimulation therapy for partial onset seizures", Neurology 1998; 51:48-55

34. Labar D, Nikolov B, Tarver B, Fraser R. "Vagus nerve stimulation for the symptomatic generalized epilepsy", Epilepsia 1998; 39:201-205

35. Amar A, DeGirogio C, Tarver W, Apuzzo M, Labar D, et al.& “Long-term multicenter experience with vagus nerve stimulation for intractable partial seizures: Results of the XE5 trial”.& Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1999; 73:104-108

36. Morris G, Mueller W, Andriola M, Ben-Menachem E, Casey K, Collins S, DeGiorgio C, Handforth A, Henry T, Kramer R, Labar D, et al. “Long-term treatment with VNS in patients with refractory epilepsy”, Neurology 1999; 53:1731-1735

37. Murphy J, Andriola M, Barron T, Burgerman R, George R, Gilmartin R, Helmers S, Labar D, et al. “Left vagus nerve stimulation: Experience in 60 children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy”. J Pediatric 1999;& 134:563-566

38. Schiff N, Labar D, and J Victor, "Common dynamics in temporal lobe seizures and absence seizures", Neuroscience 1999; 91:417-428

39. Lazar L, Milrod L, Solomon G, Labar D.& "Asynchronous burst-suppression after corpus callosum hemorrhage", EEG Clinical Neurophysiology 1999; 110:1036-1040

40. Harden C, Lazar L, Pick L, Nikolov B, Carson D, Ravdin L, Kocsis J, Labar D.& "A beneficial effect on mood in partial epilepsy patients treated with gabapentin", Epilepsia 1999; 40:1129-1134

41. Burton L, Gilliam D, Flynn S, Labar D, "Affective verbal memory in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy", Applied Neuropsychology 1999; 6:115-120

42. Burton L, Labar D. “Emotional status after right vs. left temporal lobectomy.” Seizure 1999; 8:116-119

43. Tatum W, Moore D, Stecker M, Baltuch G, French J, Ferreirs M, Carney P, Labar D, Vale P, “Ventricular asystole during vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy in human”, Neurology 1999; 52:1267-1269

44. Labar D, Tecoma E, Murphy J , “Vagus nerve stimulation for generalized epilepsy”, Neurology 1999; 52:1510-1512

45. Hirsch J, Ruge M, Kim K, Correa D, Victor J, Relkin N, Labar D, et al. “An integrated fMRI procedure for preoperative mapping of cortical areas associated with tactile, motor, language and visual functions”, Neurosurgery 2000; 47:711-721

46. Hosain S, Nikolov W, Harden C, Li M, Fraser R, Labar D. “Vagus nerve stimulation treatment for the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome”, J Child Neurology 2000; 15:509-512

47. Harden C, Pulver M, Ravdin L, Nikolov B, Halper J, Labar D.& “A pilot study of mood in epilepsy patients treated with VNS”, Epilepsy and Behavior 2000; 1:93-99

48. Labar D. “Vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy in children”,& Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 2000; 42:496-499

49. DeGiorgio C, Schachter S, Handforth A, Salinsky M, Thompson J, Uthman B, Reed R, Collins S, Tecoma E, Morris G, Vaughn B, Naritoku D, Henry T, Labar D, et al. “Prospective long-term study of VNS for the treatment of refractory seizures”, Epilpesia 2000; 41:1195-1200

50. Sirvin J, Sperling M, Naritoku D, Schachter S, Labar D, et al. “Efficacy and tolerability of vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy in older adults”, Neurology 2000; 54:1179-1182

51. Durner M, Keddache M, Shinnar S, Resor S, Cohen J, Harden C, Moshe S, Rosenbaum D, Kang H, Ballaban-Gil K, Hertz S, Labar D, et al. “Genome scan of idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Evidence for major susceptibility gene and modifying genes influencing seizure type”, Annals of Neurology 2001; 49:328-335

52. DeGiorgio C, Thompson J, Lewis P, Arrambide S, Naritoku D, Handforth A, Labar D, et al. “Vagus nerve stimulation: Analysis of device parameters in 154 patients during the long-term XE5 study”. Epilepsia 2001; 42:1017-1020

53. Delanty N, French J, Labar D, Pedley T, Rowan A. “Status epilepticus arising de novo in hospitalized patients”, Seizure 2001; 10:116-119

54. Dashieff R, Sandber T, Thompson J…Labar D, et al. “Vagus nerve stimulation does not unkindle seizures.” J Clin Neurophys 2001; 18:68-74

55. Labar D, Dilone L, Solomon G, Harden C. “Epileptogenisis: Left or right hemisphere dominance? Preliminary findings in a hospital-based population”, Seizure 2001; 10:570-572

56. Labar D, “Antiepileptic drug use during the first 12 months of vagus nerve stimulation therapy”. Neurology 2002; 59(Suppl. 4):S38-S43

57. Narayanan J, Watts R, Haddad N, Labar D, Li M, Fillipi C. “Cerebral activation during vagus nerve stimulation: A functional MR study”, Epilepsia 2002; 43:1509-1514

58. Burton L, Gilliam D, Flynn S, Labar D. “Global affective memory for faces in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy”, Applied Neuropsychology 2002; 9:234-239

59. Helmers S, Griesemer D, Dean C, Sanchez J, Labar D, et al. “Observations on the use of vagus nerve stimulation earlier in the course of pharmacoresistant epilepsy: Patients with seizures for six years or less”, The Neurologist 2003; 9:160-164

60. Burton L, Wyatt G, Rabin L, Frolich J, Bernstein S, Dimitri D, Labar D. “Perception and priming of affective faces in temporal lobectomy patients”, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2003; 25:348-360

61. Labar D, Ponticello L. “Persistent antiepileptic effects after vagus nerve stimulation ends?” Neurology 2003; 61:1818

62. Labar D.& “Vagus nerve stimulation for 1 year in 260 patients on unchanged antiepileptic drugs”, Seizure 2004: 13:392-398

63. Burton L, Bernstein S, Frohlich J, Dimitri D, Wyatt G, Rabin L, Labar D. “Affective tasks elicit material-specific memory effects in temporal lobectomy patients”, J Clinical and Experimental Neruopsychology, 2004: 26:1021-1030

64. Mehta A, Labar D, Dean A, Harden C, Hosain S, Pak J, Marks D, Schwartz T. “Frameless stereotactic placement of depth electrodes”, J Neurosurg 2005; 102:1040-1045

65. Koppel B, Harden C, Nikolov B, Labar D. “An analysis of lifetime fractures in women with epilepsy” Acta Neurologica Scandinavia& 2005; 111:225-228

66. & Harden C, Herzog A, Nikolov B, Koppel B, Christos P, Fowler K, Labar D, Hauser A.& “Hormone replacement therapy in women with epilepsy: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. Epilepsia 2006; 47:1447-1451

67. Harden C, Maroof D, Nikolov B, Fowler K, Sperling M, Liporace J, Pennell P, Labar D, Herzog. “The effect of seizure severity on quality of life in epilepsy”, Epilepsy and Behavior 2007; 11:208-211

68. Sethi N, Schaul N, Kolesnik D, Labar D,& Sethi P. “Laptop artifact during EEG”. The Internet Journal of Neuromonitoring 2007; 5:2

69. Sethi N, Labar D.& “Myoclonic epilepsy masquerading as a tic disorder-A case report”, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2007; 109:509-511

70. Narayanan J, Labar D, & Schaul N.& “Latency to first spike in the EEG of epilepsy patients”. Seizure 2008; 17:34-41

71. Sethi N, Sethi P, Torgovnick J,Arsura E, Schaul N, Labar D. “EMG artifact in brain death EEG, is it a cry of “medullary death”?, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 2008; 110:729-731

72. Ebben M, Seth N, Conte M, Pollak C, Labar D. “VNS, sleep apnea and CPAP titration.” J Clin Sleep Med 2008; 4:471-473

73. Labar D, Ponticello L, Nikolov B, Bellapu S, Schwartz T. “Stimulation parameters after vagus nerve stimulator replacement”. Neuromodulation 2008: 11:132-134

74. Placantonkis D, Shariff S, Fafaille F, Labar D, et al. “Bilateral intracranial electrodes for lateralizing intractable epilepsy: Efficacy, risk and outcome. Neurosurgery 2010; 66:274-283

75. Fisher R, Salanova V, Witt T, Worth R, Henry T, Gross R, Oomen K, Osorio I, Nazzaro J, Labar D, et al. “Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of thalamus for treatment refractory epilepsy”. Epilepsia 2010; in press.


Book Chapters:

1. Labar D. “Acute antiepileptic drug toxic emergencies”. In: The medical treatment of epilepsy. Kutt H, Resor S (Eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York,1992

2. Labar D. “Seizure disorders”. In: The Merck Manual. 16th Ed. Berkow R (Ed.), Merck Sharp and Dohme, Rahway, NJ, 1992

3. Labar D. “Treatment of status epilepticus”. In: Management of epilepsy. Chokroverty S (Ed.). Butterworth Publishing, Boston, MA, 1996

4. Labar D. “Seizure disorders”. In: The Merck Manual (for the general public) Berkow R (Ed.), Merck Sharp and Dohme, Rahway, NJ, 1997

5. Labar D. Harden C. “Seizures due to infectious diseases”. In: Epilepsy: A comprehensive textbook. Engel J, Pedley T (Eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1997

6. Labar D. “Seizure disorders”. In: The Merck Manual. 17th Ed.& Berkow R (Ed.), Merck Sharp and Dohme, Rahway, NJ, 1999

7. Labar D. “Vagus nerve stimulation:& Effects on seizures”. In: Brain stimulation and epilepsy. Luders H (Ed.), Martin Dunitz, London, UK, 2004; 255-262


1. Labar D. “Seizures in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome”. Recent advances in epilepsy 1991; 5:119-126

2. Labar D.& “Sleep disorders and epilepsy:& Differential diagnosis”. Seminars in Neurology 1991; 11:128-134

3. Labar D. “Epilepsy surgery: Analysis of outcome after temporal lobectomy”. Neurology Alert. American Health Consultants, Atlanta, Georgia, 1992

4. Borchert L, Labar D. “Management of status epilepticus”. Journal of Critical Illness 1994; 8:965-972

1. Labar D. “Effects of vagal nerve stimulation on cognition and quality of life”, Epilepsy and Behavior 2001; 2:161-162

2. Labar D, Dean A. “Neurostimulation therapy for epilespy”. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2002; 2:357-364

3. Labar D. “Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy”. Clinical Neuroscience Research 2004; 4:81-8

4. Sethi N,Labar D, Togovnick J, Sethi P, Arsura E, Soto E. “Treatment of epilepsy: A review of antiepileptic drugs.” The Internet Journal of Neurology 2008; 9:1

5. Sethi N, Labar D, Ponticello L, Torgovnick J, Sethi P, Asura E. “Treatment of epilepsy: A review of vagus nerve stimulation.” The Internet Journal of Neurology 2008: 9:1

6. Sethi N, Torgovnick J, Arsura E, Sethi P, Labar D. “Seizure disorders: An overview.” The Internet Journal of Neurology 2008: 9:1

Honors and Awards

US FDA Advisory Panel review of deep brain stimulation for epilepsy, invited by Medtronic to prepare and present clinical research, 2010

Invited expert, Cyberonics Vagus Nerve Stimulation National Leadership Summit, 2009

Listed among “New York Super Docs”, NY Times, 2009

Listed among “America’s Top Physicians”, Consumer Research Council of America, Washington, DC, 2006

Chairman, Neurostimulation for Epilepsy Special Interest Group, American Epilepsy Society, 2004-2009

Board of Directors, Physicians’ Independent Practice Association, New York Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, 2004-2008

Course director, “Neurostimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry”, Weill-Cornell CME Symposium, New York, NY, May 15, 2004

“Randomized prospective trial of adjunctive vagus nerve stimulation vs. adjunctive ‘new’ antiepileptic medications in intractable epilepsy”, Member of national steering committee for protocol development and implementation, Cyberonics, 2003-2006

“Lessons for deep brain stimulation from vagus nerve stimulation”, invited lecture at American Epilepsy Society Neurostimulation Special Interest Group, Seattle, WA, December 10, 2002

Vagus Nerve Stimulation National Education Steering Committee, Cyberonics, 2002-2003

Chairman, Fifth Annual New York Vagus Nerve Stimulation Symposium, New York, NY, February 22-24, 2002

Safety advisory board; Vagus nerve stimulation for depression, US FDA pivotal clinical trial; 2001-2003

Chairman, Fourth Annual New York Vagus Nerve Stimulation Symposium, New York, NY, April 13-15, 2001

Chairman, Third Annual New York Vagus Nerve Stimulation Symposium, New York, NY, April 14-16, 2000

Epilepsy advisory board, Cyberonics, 2000-2001

Chairman, Second Annual New York Vagus Nerve Stimulation Symposium, New York, NY, April 9-11, 1999

J. Kiffin Penry National “Eagle Award” for “Pioneering new therapies to improve the lives of people touched by epilepsy”, one of only 12 such bestowed by Cyberonics at the American Epilepsy Society meeting, San Diego, CA, December 8, 1998

Co-chair, First Annual New York Vagus Nerve stimulation Symposium and Workshop, New York, NY, April 3, 1998

Invited by Cyberonics Inc. to give two presentations at their technical symposium at the American Epilepsy Society meeting, Boston, MA, December 9, 1997 ("Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Generalized Epilepsy" and "How to Set Up a Vagus Nerve Stimulation Program")

Data and analysis from my platform presentation at the International Epilepsy Congress in Dublin, Ireland, July 2, 1997, "Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Generalized Epilepsy", served as basis for European Union CE Mark approval of indication of vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of severe generalized epilepsy

Cyberonics considers Cornell a "Regional Center of Excellence" and has brought visitors in from other states and countries for “in-service” training about vagus nerve stimulation

Invited by Cyberonics to serve on advisory board and attend their final presentation to the US FDA for approval of vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy, July, 1997

Chairman, "New developments in the treatment of pediatric epilepsy", CME Symposium, New York Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, October 12, 1996

Professional Advisory Committee, Epilepsy Institute of New York, 1996-2001

Consultant with Cyberonics and US FDA on trial of vagus nerve stimulation for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, March 1995

Listed in Marquis' "Who's Who in Medicine and Science" and "Who's Who in the World"; New York Magazine’s “Best Doctors in New York”

Chairman, "New Horizons in Epilepsy", New York Hospital/Weill Cornell Epilepsy Center Symposium, September 24, 1994

Co-chairman, "Update on diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy", Epilepsy Society of New York City Medical Education Symposium, June 19, 1993

Epilepsy Lecturers Programs: Abbott, CIBA-Geigy, Parke-Davis, Wallace, Cyberonics, Glaxo

Professional advisory committee, "Nursing care of patients with epilepsy", Epilepsy Society of New York City Nursing Education Symposium, November 9, 1991

Board of Directors, Epilepsy Society of New York City, 1991-1993

Co-chairman, "The evaluation and management of epilepsy", Epilepsy Society of New York City Medical Education Symposium, December 8, 1990

Professional Advisory Committee, Epilepsy Society of New York City, 1989-1991

Leopold Canales Award for Excellence in Clinical Neurology, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May, 1982

Elected to AOA Honorary Medical Society, Medical College of Pennsylvania Chapter, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April, 1982

Labar, D., "PKU and experimental hyperphenylalaninemia: Comparison of neuropathology", recipient of Honorable Mention Award in American Academy of Neurology Medical Student Essay Contest, April, 1978