William Joe Ledger, M.D.

Gynecology
William Ledger

Dr. William J. Ledger practices at Weill Cornell Ob/Gyn’s 68th Street office. He specializes in gynecology and infectious disease.

 

“We have barely scratched the surface of our knowledge of infectious disease, but research breakthroughs are being reported at a dizzying pace. Who would have thought that a bacterium is the cause of stomach ulcers or that a virus is the cause of cervical cancer? We now approach these diseases with infectious-disease diagnostic tools and infectious-disease prevention and treatment strategies.”

Dr. William Ledger has been recognized for decades as a pioneer in the diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic infections. He is an expert in vulvovaginal infections and disease. He was a founder and first president of the Infectious Diseases Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology, and was the first obstetrician-gynecologist elected to the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the National Foundation of Infectious Disease. He is the sole author of the first and second editions of Infection in the Female and co-author with Steven Witkin of Vulvovaginal Infections. Dr. Ledger is also the author of more than 200 articles in peer-reviewed medical journals. He was the chief investigator at one of the major test sites for the currently approved quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and has been the chief investigator in a series of trials of immunoenhancing agents to speed the elimination of HPV infections in women.

Dr. Ledger entered medical school during the Korean War and fulfilled the requirements of his student deferral by serving two years in the Air Force after internship as a medical officer assigned to the obstetric-gynecologic service.  After the Air Force, he completed his residency training at Temple University Medical School, followed by fulltime academic positions at the University of Michigan and the University of California before coming to Weill Cornell Medical College in 1979.

In his nearly fifty-year academic medical practice, he has witnessed broad changes in both the practice and make-up of medical practitioners in obstetrics and gynecology. In his medical school graduating class of 125, for example, there were just seven women, but while Dr. Ledger was Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Director of its residency program from 1979 to 1999, the majority of the residency graduates were women.

A former collegiate varsity football player, who did wear a helmet, Dr. Ledger is a Nordic Trak enthusiast who plays doubles tennis two to three times a week. He remains active both in teaching and in gynecologic practice and research. He is excited about every day at Weill Cornell, stimulated by the enthusiasm of the intelligent medical students and residents. He enjoys teaching them, emphasizing humanistic values and a commitment to providing the best care for women. These were the qualities that first attracted him to the practice of obstetrics and gynecology.

“There is an academic culture here at Weill Cornell that supports teaching and learning. It is great to have top-quality students, residents, and faculty who ask questions and exchange ideas. It encourages all of us to be involved in the process of continuing education, and it makes great doctors.”

 

A graduate of Princeton University, Dr. Ledger received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.  A former Chairman of the Cornell University Medical College Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Ledger is currently the Given Foundation Professor Emeritus of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Weill Cornell Medical College, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1979.

Insurances

Insurance Plans Accepted

The following represents most of the managed care plans accepted by this physician. If your insurance carrier does not appear here please feel free to contact this physician or this physician's practice as they may have individual contracts not included on this site.

  • AETNA [HMO]
  • AETNA [PPO]
  • Aetna - Weill Cornell [POS]
  • Affinity Essential
  • Affinity Health Plan
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [PPO]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [Mediblue (Senior)]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [EPO]
  • Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield [HMO]
  • Fidelis Care
  • Health First
  • Health Plus - Amerigroup [CHP]
  • Health Plus - Amerigroup
  • Health Republic
  • Medicare [Medicare]
  • Oscar
  • POMCO
  • Rockefeller University - CoreSource
  • United Health Care [PPO]
  • United Health Care [POS]
  • United Health Care
  • United Health Care [HMO]
  • United Health Care [EPO]
  • VNSNY CHOICE Medicare [HMO]

Publications

BIBLIOGRAPHY

As of October 2006

 

1.   Ledger WJ and Daly MJ. Posthysterectomy tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1963; 22:514.

 

2.   Schulman H and Ledger WJ. Practical Applications of the Graphic Portrayal of Labor. Obstet Gynecol 1964; 23:442.

 

3.   Ledger WJ and Schulman H. Full term twin pregnancy following treatment of endometrial    tuberculosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1964; 89:273.

 

4.   Willson JR, Bollinger CC and Ledger WJ. The effect of an intrauterine contraceptive device    on the bacterial flora of the endometrial cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1964; 89:726.

 

5.   Schulman H and Ledger WJ. Sparteine Sulfate: A clinical study of 711 patients. Obstet    Gynecol 1965; 25:542.

 

6.   Willson JR, Ledger WJ, Bollinger, CC and Andros, GJ. The Marguiles Intrauterine    Contraceptive Device. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965; 92:6.

 

7.   Willson JR, Ledger WJ, Andros, GJ and Bollinger, CC. Genital tract infection with an intra-   uterine contraceptive device: A histopathologic study. Proceedings of Second International    Conference Intrauterine Contraception. Excerpta Med p.178.

 

8.   Willson JR, Ledger WJ and Andros, GJ. The effect of an intrauterine contraceptive device on    the histologic pattern of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965; 93:802.

 

9.   Ledger WJ. Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices. Univ Mich Medical Center Journal 1966;    32:8.

 

10.   Ledger WJ and Bickley JE. Effect of a plastic foreign body on the genital tract of the female    rabbit. Obstet Gynecol 1966; 27:658.

 

11.   Jaffe RB and Ledger WJ. In vitro steroid biogenesis and metabolism in the human term    placenta. 1. In situ placental perfusion with isotopic pregnenolone. Steroids 1966; 8:61.

 

12.   Ledger WJ, Vicker KD and Irvin LA. Effect of a plastic intrauterine device upon implantation in the rabbit. Obstet Gynecol 1966; 28:521.

 

13.   Ledger WJ and Willson JR. Intrauterine contraceptive devices: The recognition and    management of uterine perforations. Obstet Gynecol 1966; 28:806.

 

14.   Willson JR, Ledger WJ and Lovell J. Intrauterine contraceptive devices: A comparison    between their use in indigent and private patients. Obstet Gynecol 1967; 29:59.

 

15.   Ledger WJ. Current clinical status of intrauterine contraceptive devices. OB-GYN Dig 1967;    9:37.

 

16.   Ledger WJ. Graphic analysis: An aid in the early recognition of abnormal labors. Univ Mich    Med Ctr J 1967; 33:326.

 

17.   Ledger WJ, Campbell C and Willson JR. Post-operative adnexal infections. Obstet Gynecol    1968; 31:83.

 

18.   Willson JR and Ledger WJ. Complications associated with the use of intrauterine    contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1968; 100:649.

 

19.   Echenberg R and Ledger WJ. Peritoneal response to polyethylene foreign bodies. Obstet    Gynecol 1968; 31:795.

 

20.   Ledger WJ and Schrader FJ. Death from septicemia following insertion of an intrauterine    device. Obstet Gynecol 1968; 31:84.

 

21.   Ledger WJ. When to hospitalize an incomplete abortion. Hosp Practice 1968; 3:30.

 

22.   Hussein M and Ledger WJ. Fertile life span of rabbit spermatozoa in the presence of an    intrauterine contraceptive device. Int J Fertil 1968; 13:233.

 

23.   Stock L, Ledger WJ and Campbell C. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the rat's uterine reaction    to a nylon suture. Fertil Steril 1968; 19:644.

 

24.   Stock L, Ledger WJ and Campbell C. Nylon suture in the rat uterus in the absence of    estrogen. Arch Path 1968; 86:171.

 

25.   Ledger WJ and Irvin LA. The reversible contraceptive action of the intrauterine foreign bodies    in rabbits. Fertil Steril 1968; 13:954.

 

26.   Hussein M. and Ledger WJ. Relationship between an intrauterine device and changes in tubal    histochemistry in the rabbit. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1969; 103:213.

 

27.   Hussein M and Ledger WJ. Preimplantation effect of an intrauterine device in the rabbit. Am    J Obstet Gynecol 1969; 103:22.

 

28.   Ledger WJ and Kalstone C. Cervical biopsy: A screening procedure in patients with an    incomplete abortion. Obstet Gynecol 1969; 33:170.   

 

29.   Gregoire AT and Ledger WJ. The glycogen content of human ectocervical tissue of females    receiving steroid contraceptive therapy. Fertil Steril 1969; 20:91.

 

30.   Ledger WJ. Monitoring of labor by graphs. Obstet Gynecol 1969; 34:174.

 

31.   Ledger WJ, Campbell C, Taylor D, and Willson JR. Adnexal abscess as a late complication    of pelvic operations. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1969; 129:973.

 

32.   Bollinger CC, Carrier TC and Ledger WJ. Intrauterine contraception in Indians of the    American Southwest. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1970; 106:699.

 

33.   Avery B and Ledger WJ. Folic acid metabolism in well nourished pregnant women. Obstet    Gynecol 1970; 35:616.

 

34.   Ledger WJ. Ortho 1557-0: A new oral contraceptive. Int J Fertil 1970; 15:8.

 

35.   Ledger WJ and Peterson EP. The use of heparin in the management of pelvic thrombophlebitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1970; 131:1115.

 

36.   Gregoire AT, Kandil O, and Ledger WJ. The glycogen content of human vaginal epithelial    tissue. Fertil Steril 1971; 22:64.

 

37.   Kay DR, Bole GG, Jr and Ledger WJ. Antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and C-   reactive protein in serum of normal women using oral contraceptives. Arthritis Rheum 1971; 14:239.

 

38.   Ledger WJ, Reite AM and Headington JT. A system for infectious disease surveillance on an    obstetric service. Obstet Gynecol 1971; 37:369.

 

39.   Ledger WJ, Thompson GR and Grobelny SL. Effects of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy,    hysterectomy and other operative procedures upon urinary mucopolysaccharide excretion: A    preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971; 110:494.

 

40.   Ledger WJ, Sweet RL and Headington JT. Bacteroides species as a cause of severe infections    in Obstetric and Gynecologic patients. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1971; 133:837.

 

41.   Roberts JM and Ledger WJ. Operative removal of intraperitoneal intrauterine devices: A    reappraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 112:853.

 

42.   Ledger WJ and Headington JT. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus: An important cause    of serious infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Obstet Gynecol 1972; 39:474.

 

43.   Ledger WJ and Headington JT. Isolation of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes from an infection of a pregnant uterus. Int J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 10:87.

 

44.   Ledger WJ, Reite AM and Headington JT. The surveillance of infection of an inpatient    Gynecology service. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 113:662.

 

45.   Ledger WJ and Witting WC. The use of a cervical dilatation graph in the management of    primigravidae in labour. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commonw 1972; 79:710.

 

46.   Ledger WJ. Bacteroides infection in Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Technical Bulletin.    October 1972; No. 18.

 

47.   Ledger WJ. Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology. New Developments in Treatment. Surg    Clin N Amer 1972; 52:1447.

 

48.   Ledger WJ and Kriewall TJ. The Fever Index-A Quantitative Indirect Measure of Hospital    Acquired Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Amer J Obstet and Gynecol 1973; 115:514.

 

49.   Ledger WJ, Sweet RL and Headington JT. The prophylactic use of cephaloridine in the prevention of pelvic infections in premenopausal women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1973; 115:766.

 

50.   Ledger WJ, Donnak JW, Ansbacher R and Luchs H. The necessary ingredients for a successful    expanding vasectomy clinic. Excerpta Medica 1973; Vol VIII:167.

 

51.   Ledger WJ and Hackett K. Significance of clostridia in female reproductive tract. Obstet    Gynecol 1973; 41:525.

 

52.   Ledger WJ. The surgical care of severe infections in Obstetric and Gynecologic patients. Surg    Gynecol Obstet 1973; 132:753.

 

53.   Gregoire AT, Ledger WJ and Moran MJ. The glycogen content of the human female genital    tract in cycling, menopausal and women with endometrial and cervical cancer. Fertil Steril 1973;    24:198.

 

54.   Ledger WJ and Child M. The hospital care of patients undergoing hysterectomy. An analysis of 12,026 patients from the professional activity study. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1973; 117:423.

 

55.   Sweet RL and Ledger WJ. Puerperal infectious morbidity. A two year review. Amer J Obstet    Gynecol 1973; 117:1092.

 

56.   Ledger WJ, Kriewall TJ, Sweet R and Fekety FR. A comparison of penicillin-kanamycin and    clindamycin in the treatment of severe and Obstetric-Gynecologic infections. Obstet Gynecol    1974; 43:490.

 

57.   Ledger WJ: “The new face of puerperal sepsis.” JOGN Nursing 1974; 3:26.

 

58.   Ledger WJ. The relationship of pelvic infection to various types of contraception. Clin OB-   GYN 1974; 17:79.

 

59.   Thompson GR, deVries L and Ledger WJ. The effect of pregnancy upon urinary    mucopolysaccharide excretion. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1974; 119:1069.

 

60.   Ledger WJ, Thompson GR and deVries L. The influence of infection in Obstetric and    Gynecologic patients upon increased urinary mucopolysaccharide excretion. Amer J Obstet    Gynecol 1974; 120:407.

 

61.   Ledger WJ, Gassner CB and Gee CL. Operative care of infections in Obstetrics-Gynecology.    J Repro Med 1974; 13:128.

 

62.   Ledger WJ, Gee CL and Lewis W. Bacteremia on an Obstetric Gynecological Service. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1975; 121:205.

 

63.   Ledger WJ, Gee CL and Lewis W. Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in Gynecology. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1975; 121:1038.

 

64.   Ledger WJ and Puttler OL. Death from Pseudomembranous enterocolitis. Obstet Gynecol 1975; 45:609.

 

65.   Ledger WJ, Kriewall TJ and Gee C. The fever index. A technique for evaluating the clinical    response to bacteremia. Obstet Gynecol 1975; 45:603.

 

66.   Ledger WJ. OB/GYN Infections. Changing Patterns and Management Hospital Practice.    1975; 10:115.

 

67.   Ledger WJ. Anaerobic Infections. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1975; 123:111.

 

68.   Heaton FC and Ledger WJ. Postmenopausal tubo-ovarian abscess. Obstet Gynecol 1976;    47:90.

 

69.   Ledger WJ and Nakamura RM. Measurement of infectious disease morbidity in Obstetrics and    Gynecology. Clin Obstet and Gynecol 1976; 19:195.

 

70.   Bobitt JR and Ledger WJ. Obstetric observations in eleven cases of neonatal sepsis due to the    group B beta hemolytic streptococcus. Obstet Gynecol 1976; 47:439.

 

71.   Ledger WJ, Gee CL, Pollin P, Nakamura RM and Lewis WP. The use of pre-reduced media and portable jars for the collection of anaerobic organisms from clinical sites. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1976; 125:677.

 

72.   Rubenstein PR, Mischell DR and Ledger WJ. Colpotomy drainage of pelvic abscess. Obstet    Gynecol 1976; 48:142-45.

 

73.   Ledger WJ, Gee CL, Pollin P, Lewis WP, Sutter VL and Finegold SM. A new approach to    patients with suspected anaerobic postpartum pelvic infections. Transabdominal uterine    aspirations for culture and metronidazole for treatment. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1976; 126:1.

 

74.   Gassner CB and Ledger WJ. The relationship of hospital-acquired maternal infections to    invasive intrapartum monitoring techniques. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1976; 126:33.

 

75.   Gee CL and Ledger WJ. Maternal and fetal morbidity associated with intrapartum monitoring.    J Obstet Gynecol and Neonatal Nur (supplement) 1976; p.65s.

 

76.   Ledger WJ. Premature rupture of membranes and the influence of invasive monitoring    techniques upon fetal and newborn infection. Seminars in Perinatology 1977; 1:79.

 

77.   Ledger WJ. Infections in elderly women. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1977; 20:145.

 

78.   Ledger WJ, Gee CL, Lewis WP and Bobitt JR. Comparison of Clindamycin and    Chloramphenicol in Treatment of Serious Infections of the Female Genital Tract. J Inf Dis 1977;    135:S30.

 

79.   Golde SH, Israel R, and Ledger WJ. Unilateral Tubo-ovarian Abscess-A Distinct Entity. Am J    Obstet Gynecol 1977; 127:807.

 

80.   Ledger WJ. Antibiotics in Pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1977; 20:#2, 411.

 

81.   Bobitt JR and Ledger WJ. Unrecognized Amnionitis and Prematurity, A Preliminary Report. J Reprod Med 1977; 19:8.

 

82.   Ledger WJ, Moore DE, Lowensohn RI and Gee CL. A fever index evaluation of Chloramphenicol of Clindamycin in patients with serious pelvic infections. Obstet Gynecol 1977; 50:523.

 

83.   Ledger WJ, Boice C, Yonekura L and DiZerega, G. Vaginal hysterectomy. Southern Med J 1977; 70:supplement #1:40.

 

84.   Golde S and Ledger WJ. Necrotizing fascitis in postpartum patients: A report of four cases.    Obstet Gynecol 1977; 50:670.

 

85.   Ledger WJ, Lewis W, Golde S and Gee C. The use of metronidazole in Obstetric and Gynecologic infections. J Inf Dis, Proceedings of the International Metronidazole Conference, Montreal. Excerpta Medica 1977; p. 353.

 

86.   Bobitt JR and Ledger WJ. Amniotic fluid analysis: Its role in maternal and neonatal infection.    Obstet Gynecol 1978; 51:56.

 

87.   Ledger WJ. Tetracyclines in Gynecologic Infections. Bulletin NY Acad Med 1978; Vol 54, No 2, p126.

 

88.   Wong R, Gee C and Ledger WJ. Prophylactic use of Cefazolin in monitored high risk Obstetrical patients undergoing cesarean section. International Society of Chemotherapy. American Society of Microbiology 1978; 51:407.

 

89.   Wong R, Gee C and Ledger WJ. Prophylactic use of Cefazolin in monitored high risk Obstetrical patients undergoing cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 1978; 51:407.

 

90.   Ledger WJ. Postoperative Pelvic Infection: A disease of medical progress. The Univ of Michigan Medical Center Journal 1978; 43:18.

 

91.   Ledger WJ. Complications associated with invasive monitoring seminars in perinatology. 1978; 2:187.

 

92.   Ledger WJ. Bacterial infections complicating pregnancy. Clin Ob/Gyn 1978; 21:455.

 

93.   White JS, Gee C and Ledger WJ. The use of intravenous cefoxitin sodium in patients with obstetric gynecologic infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 1978; 4:239.

 

94.   Ledger WJ. Hospital Infections: Gynecologic, Obstetric and Perinatal Infections. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89:774.

 

95.   Ledger WJ. Premature Rupture of Membranes and Maternal-Fetal Infection. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1979; 22:329.

 

96.   Ledger WJ. Management of Obstetric and Gynecologic Infections Resulting from Trauma. Bull NY Academ Med 1979; 55:241.

 

97.   Tong MJ McPeak CM, Thursby MW, Schweitzer IL, Henneman CE and Ledger WJ. Failure of immune serum globulin to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in infants born to HBs Ag-positive mothers. Gastroenterology 1979; 76:535.

 

98.   DiZerega G, Yonekura L, Roy S, Nakamura RM and Ledger WJ. A comparison of clindamycin-gentamicin and penicillin-gentamicin in the treatment of post-cesarean section endomyometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 134:238.

 

99.   Koh KS, Chan FH, Nonfaved AH and Ledger WJ. The changing perinatal and maternal outcome in chorioamnionitis. Obstet Gynecol 1979; 53:730.

 

100.   Sweet RL and Ledger WJ. Cefoxitin: Single agent treatment of mixed aerobic anaerobic pelvic infections. Obstet Gynecol 1979; 54:193.

 

101.   Platt LD, Yonekura ML and Ledger WJ. The role of anaerobic bacteria in postpartum endomyometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 135:814.

 

102.   Ledger WJ and Smith D. Cefoxitin in obstetric and gynecologic infections. Rev Inf Dis 1979; 1:199.

 

103.   Petrilli ES, D’Ablaing G and Ledger WJ. Listeria monocytogenes chorioamnionitis: Diagnosis by transabdominal amniocentesis. Obstet Gynecol 1980; 55 (suppl):5S.

 

104.   DiZerga GS, Yonekura ML, Keegan K, Roy S, Nakamura R and Ledger WJ. Bacteremia in post cesarean section endomyometritis: Differential response to therapy. Obstet Gynecol 1980; 55:587.

 

105.   Ledger WJ. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of postoperative infections. Obstet Gynecol 1980; 5S:203S.

 

106.   Muller M, Meingassner JG, Miller WA and Ledger WJ. Three metronidazole resistant strains of Trichomonas Vaginalis from the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 138:808.

 

107.   Ledger, WJ. Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected salpingo-oophoritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 138:1012.

 

108.   Toth A, O’Leary WM and Ledger WJ. Evidence for microbial transfer by spermatozoa. Obstet Gynecol 1982; 59:556.

 

109.   Benedetti TJ, Valle R and Ledger WJ. Antepartum pneumonia in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 144:413.

 

110.   DiZerega GS, Yonekura ML and Ledger WJ. Post-cesarean section endomyometritis: Significance of transcervical endometrial cultures in bacteremic patients. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1982; 20:313.

 

111.   Toth AT, Senerfit LB and Ledger WJ. Secondary amenorrhea associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Br J Vener Dis 1983; 59:105.

 

112.   Ledger WJ. Selection of antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections of the female genital tract. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5S98-104.

 

113.   Young R, Platt L and Ledger WJ. Prophylactic cefoxitin in cesarean section. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1983; 157:11.

 

114.   Ledger WJ. Prophylactic antibiotics. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1983; 10:23.

 

115.   Witkin SS, Yu IR and Ledger WJ. Inhibition of Candida Albicans-induced Lymphocyte Proliferation by Sera from Women with Recurrent Vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 147-809.

 

116.   Ledger WJ. Surgical treatment for salpingo-oophoritis patients. J Reprod Med 1983; 28:716.

 

117.   Ledger WJ. Diagnosis and Treatment of Salpingitis. J Reprod Med 1983: 28:709.

 

118.   Cotton DB, Hill LM, Strawsner HT, Platt LD and Ledger WJ. Use of amniocentesis in preterm gestation with ruptured membranes. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 63:38.

 

119.   Gupta GN, Saxena BB, Landesman R and Ledger WJ. Subcutaneous bioabsorbable pellets of norethindrone for contraception in women. Fertil Steril 1984; 41:726.

 

120.   Witkin SS and Ledger WJ. Circulating immune complexes in sera of patients with gynecologic disorders. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1984; 159:413.

 

121.   Witkin SS, Bongiovanni AM, Berkeley A, Ledger WJ and Toth A. Detection and characterization of immune complexes in the circulation of infertile women. Fertil Steril 1984; 42:384.

 

122.   Witkin SS, Bongiovanni AM, Birnbaum S, Caputo T and Ledger WJ. Ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide: association with gynecologic cancers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 151:679.

 

123.   Berkeley AS, Freedman K, Hirsch J and Ledger WJ. Imipenem/Cilastatin in the treatment of obstetric and gynecologic infections. Am J Med 1985; 78:79.

 

124.   Ledger WJ. The next 10 years in the treatment of pelvic infections. Am J Med 1985; 78:194.

 

125.   Ledger WJ. Obstetrics and Gynecology. An Overview. Am J Med 1985; 78:163.

 

126.   Singh M, Saxena BB, Landesman R and Ledger WJ. Contraceptive efficacy of bioabsorbable pellets of norethindrone (NET) as subcutaneous implants: Phase II clinical study. Adv Contracept 1985; 1:131-149.

 

127.   Ledger WJ. Aminoglycosides in gynecologic infections. Am J Med 1986; 80:216.

 

128.   Ledger WJ. Current problems in antibiotic treatment in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Rev Inf Dis 1986; 7:S679.

 

129.   Benigno BB, Ford LC, Lawrence WD, Ledger WJ, Ling FW and McNeeley SG. A double-blind controlled comparison of piperacillin and cefoxitin in the prevention of postoperative infection in patients undergoing cesarean section. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1986; 162:1.

 

130.   Berkeley AS, Hayworth SD, Hirsch JC, Freedman KS and Ledger WJ. Controlled comparative study of moxalactam and cefazolin for prophylaxis of abdominal hysterectomy. Surg Gyn Obstet 1986; 161:457.

 

131.   Berkeley AS, Freedman KS, Hirsch JD and Ledger WJ. Randomized comparative trial of imipenem/cilastin and moxalactam in the treatment of serious obstetric and gynecologic infections. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1986; 162:204.

 

132.   Druzin ML, Toth M and Ledger WJ. Nonintervention in premature rupture of the amniotic membranes. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1986; 163:5.

 

133.   Witkin SS, Hirsch J and Ledger WJ. A macrophage defect in women with recurrent Candida Vaginitis and its reversal in vitro by prostaglandin inhibitors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155:790.

 

134.   Ledger WJ. Antibiotic Treatment for Pelvic Infection. Chemioterapia 1987; 6:190.

 

135.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. A localized vaginal allergic response in women with recurrent vaginitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988; 81:412.

 

136.   Berkeley AS, Orr JW, Cavanagh D, Freedman KS, Ledger WJ, Pastorek JG and Sevin B. Comparative effectiveness and safety of cefotetan and cefoxitin as prophylactic agents in patients undergoing abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Surg 1988; 155:81.

 

137.   Ledger WJ. A historical review of pelvic infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158:687.

 

138.   Berkeley AS, Freedman KS, Ledger WJ, Orr JW, Benigno BB, Gordon SF, McGregor JA, Galask RP and Sevin B. Comparison of cefotetan and cefoxitin prophylaxis for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158:706.

 

139.   Toth M, Witkin SS, Ledger WJ and Thaler H. The role of infection in the etiology of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71:723.

 

140.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. Recurrent vaginitis as a result of sexual transmission of Ig E antibodies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159:32.

 

141.   Ledger WJ. Surgical asepsis in labor and delivery. Inf Control Hosp Epid 1988; 9:469.

 

142.   Ledger WJ. Infection and premature labor. Am J Perinatal 1989; 6:234.

 

143.   Grifo JA, Jeremias J, Ledger WJ and Witkin SS. Interferon gamma in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 160:261.

 

144.   Huffaker J, Witkin SS, Cutler L, Druzin ML and Ledger WJ. Total complement activity in maternal sera amniotic fluids and cord sera in women with premature labor, premature rupture of membranes or chorioamnionitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1989; 168:397.

 

145.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. Vaginal eosinophils and Ig E antibodies to Candida albicans in women with recurrent vaginitis. J Med Vet Mycol 1989; 27:57.

 

146.   Singh M, Saxena BB, Graver R and Ledger WJ. Contraceptive efficacy of norethindrome encapsulated in injectable biodegradable poly-di-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres: phase II clinical study. Fert and Steril 1989; 55:6, 973-980.

 

147.   Berkeley AS, Hirsch JC, Freedman KS and Ledger WJ. Cefotaxime for cesarean section prophylaxis in labor. Intravenous administration vs. lavage. J Reprod Med 1990; 35:214.

 

148.   Witkin SS, Kalo-Klein A, Galland L, Teich M and Ledger WJ. Effect of Candida albicans plus histamine on prostaglandin E production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy women and women with recurrent Candidal vaginitis. J Infect Dis 1991; 164:396.

 

149.   Witkin SS, Toth M, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. Increased inducibility of inflammatory mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of women with Salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165:719.

 

150.   Toth M, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. In vivo tumor necrosis factor production in women with Salpingitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992; 174:359.

 

151.   Gorbach SL, Condon RE, Conte JE, Kaiser AB, Ledger WJ and Nichols RL. Evaluation of new anti-effective drugs for surgical prophylaxis. Infect Dis Soc of Amer and the Food and Drug Admin. Clin Inf Dis 1992; Sup 1:S-313-S-338.

 

152.   Witkin SS and Ledger WJ. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in sera of women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167:135.

 

153.   Ledger WJ. Chronic vulvovaginitis. Inf Dis Clin Prac 1993; 2:60.

 

154.   Witkin SS and Ledger WJ. New directions in the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. J Antimicrob Chemother 1993; 31:197.

 

155.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J, Toth M and Ledger WJ. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by the polymerase chain reaction in the cervices of women with acute Salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168:1438.

 

156.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J, Grifo JA and Ledger WJ. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in semen by the polymerase chain reaction in male members of infertile couples. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168:1457.

 

157.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J, Toth M and Ledger WJ. Cell-medicated immune response to the recombinant 57-kDa heat-shock protein of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with Salpingitis. J Inf Dis 1993; 167:1379.

 

158.   Ledger WJ. Historical review of the treatment of Bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstetrics and Gynecol 1993; 169:474-498.

 

159.   Ledger WJ. Preconceptual preventive health care for women. Inf Dis Clin Prac 1993; 2:222.

 

160.   Ledger WJ. The continuum of change in our understanding of pelvic inflammatory disease. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol 1994; 2:463.

 

161.   Witkin SS, Jeremias J, Toth M and Ledger WJ. Proliferative response to conserved epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis and human 60-kilodalton heat-shock proteins by lymphocytes from women with Salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171:455.

 

162.   Ledger WJ. Preventive Antepartum Care. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol 1994; 2:83.

 

163.   Hemsell DL, Little BB, Faro S, Sweet RL, Ledger WJ, Berkeley AS, Eschenbach DA, Wölner-Hanssen P and Pastorek JG 2nd. Comparison of three regimens recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the treatment of women hospitalized with acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Inf Dis 1994; 19:720.

 

164.   Inglis S and Ledger WJ. Opinion – oligohydramnios a risk for infection in term premature rupture of membrane. Ultra Obstet Gynecol 1994; 4:90-93.

 

165.   LaGuardia KD, White MH, Saigo PE, Hoda S, McGuinness K and Ledger WJ. Genital ulcer disease in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172:553.

 

166.   Chervenak FA, McCullough LB and Ledger WJ. Advocacy for routine obstetric ultrasound: An essential obligation in contemporary obstetric care. ACOG Clinical Review 1996; 1:1.

 

167.   Singh M, Thomas D, Singh R, Saxena BB and Ledger WJ. A triphasic oral contraceptive pill, CTR-D5 Clinical efficiency and safety. Eur J Contra & Reprod Health Care 1996; 1:285-292.

 

168.   Ledger WJ. Preventive care in obstetrics: toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and Hepatitis B. J Maternal Fetal Med 1996; 5:100-105.

 

169.   Ledger WJ, Kessler A, Leonard GH and Witkin SS. Vulvar vestibulitis: A complex clinical entity. Inf Dis in Obstet Gynecol 4; 1996:269-275.

 

170.   Singh M, Thomas D, Singh R, Saxena BB, Ledger WJ. A triphasic oral contraceptive pill, CTR-05: clinical efficacy and safe琀礀⸀  䔀甀爀 䨀 䌀漀渀琀爀愀挀攀瀀琀 刀攀瀀爀漀搀 䠀攀愀氀琀栀 䌀愀爀攀⸀ ㄀㤀㤀㘀 匀攀瀀㬀 ㄀ ⠀㌀⤀㨀㈀㠀㔀ⴀ㤀㈀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㄀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀匀椀渀最栀 䴀Ⰰ 匀愀砀攀渀愀 䈀䈀Ⰰ 刀愀最栀甀戀愀渀猀欀椀 刀刀Ⰰ 䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀Ⰰ 䠀愀爀洀愀渀 匀䴀 愀渀搀 䰀攀漀渀愀爀搀 刀䨀⸀  䈀椀漀搀攀最爀愀搀愀戀氀攀 渀漀爀攀琀栀椀渀搀爀漀渀攀 ⠀一䔀吀⤀ 䌀栀漀氀攀猀琀攀爀漀氀 挀漀渀琀爀愀挀攀瀀琀椀瘀攀 椀洀瀀氀愀渀琀猀Ⰰ 倀栀愀猀攀 䤀䤀䄀㨀  䄀 挀氀椀渀椀挀愀氀 猀琀甀搀礀 椀渀 眀漀洀攀渀⸀   䌀漀渀琀爀愀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 㔀㔀㨀㈀㌀ⴀ㌀㌀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㈀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀匀椀渀最栀 䴀Ⰰ 匀愀砀攀渀愀 䈀䈀Ⰰ 匀椀渀最栀 刀Ⰰ 䬀愀瀀氀愀渀 䨀 愀渀搀 䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀⸀  䌀漀渀琀爀愀挀攀瀀琀椀瘀攀 攀昀昀椀挀愀挀礀 漀昀 渀漀爀攀琀栀椀渀搀爀漀渀攀 攀渀挀愀瀀猀甀氀愀琀攀搀 椀渀 椀渀樀攀挀琀愀戀氀攀 戀椀漀搀攀最爀愀搀愀戀氀攀 瀀漀氀礀ⴀ搀椀ⴀ氀愀挀琀椀搀攀 挀漀ⴀ最氀礀挀漀氀椀搀攀 洀椀挀爀漀猀瀀栀攀爀攀猀 ⠀一䔀吀ⴀ㤀 ⤀ 瀀栀愀猀攀 䤀䤀䤀 挀氀椀渀椀挀愀氀 猀琀甀搀礀⸀  䄀搀瘀 䌀漀渀琀爀愀挀攀瀀琀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 ㄀㌀㨀㄀ⴀ㄀㄀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀      㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㌀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀 愀渀搀 匀欀甀瀀猀欀椀 䐀⸀  倀爀攀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 椀渀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 瀀爀攀最渀愀渀挀礀⸀  䤀渀昀 䐀椀猀 椀渀 伀戀猀琀攀琀 䜀礀渀攀挀漀氀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 㔀㨀㄀㘀㔀ⴀ㄀㜀㔀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀    㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㐀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䌀栀攀爀瘀攀渀愀欀 䘀䄀Ⰰ 䴀挀䌀甀氀氀漀甀最栀 䰀䈀 愀渀搀 䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀⸀  䔀琀栀椀挀愀氀 搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 栀甀洀愀渀 椀洀洀甀渀漀搀攀昀椀挀椀攀渀挀礀 瘀椀爀甀猀 椀渀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀 搀甀爀椀渀最 瀀爀攀最渀愀渀挀礀⸀  䤀渀昀 䐀椀猀 椀渀 伀戀猀琀攀琀 䜀礀渀攀挀漀氀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 㔀㨀㄀㤀㈀ⴀ㄀㤀㠀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㔀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䜀愀爀瘀攀礀 倀 愀渀搀 䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀⸀  䜀爀漀甀瀀 䄀 匀琀爀攀瀀琀漀挀漀挀挀甀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 最礀渀攀挀漀氀漀最椀挀 瀀愀琀椀攀渀琀⸀  䤀渀昀 䐀椀猀 椀渀 伀戀猀琀攀琀 䜀礀渀攀挀漀氀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 㔀㨀㌀㤀㄀ⴀ㌀㤀㐀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㘀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀⸀  䐀漀 眀攀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 爀椀最栀琀 猀琀爀愀琀攀最椀攀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀爀漀氀 漀昀 瀀攀氀瘀椀挀 椀渀昀氀愀洀洀愀琀漀爀礀 搀椀猀攀愀猀攀㼀  䤀渀昀 䐀椀猀 䤀渀 䌀氀椀渀 倀爀愀挀琀 ㄀㤀㤀㜀㬀 㘀㨀㌀㄀㜀ⴀ㌀㈀㄀⸀㰀戀爀⼀㸀             㰀戀爀⼀㸀㄀㜀㜀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䰀攀搀最攀爀 圀䨀⸀  䔀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 戀愀猀攀搀 洀攀搀椀挀椀渀攀 愀渀搀 漀甀琀挀漀洀攀猀 爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀 椀渀 椀渀昀攀挀琀椀漀s diseases. Inf Dis Clin Prac 1998; 7:148-151.

 

178.   Ledger WJ. CDC Guidelines for the prevention of perinatal Group B streptococcal disease: Are they appropriate? Inf Dis Clin Prac 1998; 7:188-193.

 

179.   Noyes N, Berkeley B, Freedman K and Ledger WJ. Incidence of Postpartum Endomyometritis Following Single-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Either Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Cefazolin, or Cefotetan in High-Risk Cesarean Section Patients. Inf Dis Clin Prac 1998; 6:220-223.

 

180.   Sobel JD, Faro S, Force RW, Foxman B, Ledger WJ, Nyirjesy PR, Reed BD, Summers PR. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998 Feb; 178 (2):203-11. Review.

 

181.   Ledger WJ. Current problems in the diagnosis and treatment of Candida vaginitis. It J Gynecol Obstet 1999; 1:25-29.

 

182.   Ledger WJ, Jeremias J. Isn’t it Time to Recognize and Treat Carcinoma of the Cervix as an Infectious Disease? Inf Dis Clin Prac 1999; 8:279-285.

 

183.   Jeremias J, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism in women with vulvar vestibulitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(2):283-285.

 

184.   Ledger WJ, Jeremias J, Witkin SS. Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus types will become a standard of clinical care. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(4):860-865.

 

185.   Toth M, Patton DL, Campbell LA, Carretta EI, Mouradian J, Toth A, Shevchuk M, Baergen R and Ledger WJ. Detection of chlamydial antigenic material in ovarian, prostatic, ectopic pregnancy, and semen samples of culture-negative subjects. Am J Reprod Immun 2000; 43:218-222.

 

186.   Genç M and Ledger WJ. Syphilis in pregnancy. Sex Transm Infect 2000; 76:73-79.

 

187.   Witkin SS, Linhares IM, Giraldo P, Jeremias J and Ledger WJ. Individual immunity and susceptibility to female genital tract infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183:252-256.

 

188.   Ledger WJ, Polaneczky MM, Yih MC, Jeremias J, Tolbert V and Witkin SS. Difficulties in the Diagnosis of Candida Vaginitis. Inf Dis Clin Pract 2000; Vol 9, 2:66-69.

 

189.   Linhares IM, Witkin SS, Caetano ME, Giraldo P, Pinotti JA, Ledger WJ. Human papillomavirus in the vaginal introitus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Oct; 11 (10):686-8.

 

190.   Weissenbacher S, Witkin SS, Tolbert V, Giraldo P, Linhares I, Haas A, Weissenbacher ER, Ledger WJ. Value of Candida polymerase chain reaction and vaginal cytokine analysis for the differential diagnosis of women with recurrent vulvovaginitis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2000; 8 (5-6):244-7.

 

191.   Hemsel DL, Ledger WJ, Martens M, Monif GRG, Osborne NG, Thomason JL. Concerns Regarding the Centers for Disease Control’s Published Guidelines for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32:103-7.

 

192.   Jurema MW, Polaneczky M, Ledger WJ. Hepatitis B immunization in postpartum women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001 Aug; 185 (2):355-8.

 

193.   Linhares LM, Witkin SS, Miranda SD, Fonseca AM, Pinotti JA, Ledger WJ. Differentiation between women with vulvovaginal symptoms who are positive or negative for Candida species by culture. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2001;9(4):221-5.

 

194.   Witkin SS, Gerber S, Ledger WJ. Influence of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism on disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 15;34(2):204-9.

 

195.   Gerber S, Bongiovanni AM, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. A deficiency in interferon-alpha production in women with vulvar vestibulitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Mar;186(3):361-4.

 

196.   Gerber S, Bongiovanni AM, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Defective regulation of the proinflammatory immune response in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Apr;186(4):696-700.

 

197.   Witkin SS, Gerber S, Ledger WJ. Differential characterization of women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002 Sep;187(3):589-94.

 

198.   Gerber S, Bongiovanni AM, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Interleukin 1 beta gene polymorphism in women with vulvar vestibulitis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Mar 26;107(1):74-7.

 

199.   Glazer HI, Ledger WJ. Clinical management of vulvodynia. Rev in Gynaecol Pract 2 (2002) 83-90.

 

200.   Babula O, Lazdane G, Kroica J, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Relation between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, vaginal concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, and a mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism in Latvian women. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Sep 1;37(5):733-7.

 

201.   Ledger WJ. Post-partum endomyometritis diagnosis and treatment: a review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2003; 29(6): 364-73.

 

202.   Ledger WJ, Monif GRG. A growing concern: inability to diagnose vulvovaginal infections correctly. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103(4): 782-4.

 

203.   Ledger WJ, Gee R, Genç M, Bongiovanni AM, Witkin SS. Human Papilloma virus testing in women with an abnormal pap smear. It J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 16(3-4):103-109.

 

204.   Babula O, Bongiovani AM, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Immunoglobulin E antibodies to seminal fluid in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: relation to onset and time of symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 663-7.

 

205.   Genç M, Gerber S, Witkin SS, Ledger WJ. Persisting vulvar vestibulitis after successful treatment of human (forthcoming)

 

206.   Saxena BB, Singh M, Gospin RM, Chu CC, Ledger WJ. Efficacy of nonhormonal vaginal contraceptives from a biodegradable hydrogel delivery system. Contraception 2004; 70: 213-219.

 

207.   Babula O, Danielsson I, Sjoberg I, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Altered distribution of mannose-binding lectin alleles at exon I codon 54 in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 762-6.

 

208.   Babula O, Lazdane G, Kroica J, Linhares I, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Frequency of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene polymorphism and vaginal concentrations of IL-4, nitric oxide and mannose-binding lectin in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 1;40(9): 1258-1262.

 

209.   Ledger WJ. Pitfalls in statistical analyses of the best care for women. It J Gynaecol Obstet 2005; 17(1):9-12.

 

210.   Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Are you a lumper or a splitter? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006. In press.

 

211.   Spandorfer SD, Bongiovanni AM, Fasioulotis S, Rosenwaks Z, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and association with outcome. Fertility and Sterility 2006;86(3):765-6.